NB: This is a reference bibliography being used within the framework of the project.

Youth in Europe. Characterising the Millennials

New online political participation spaces and practices

  • Kurban, C., Peña-López, I. & Haberer, M. (2017). “What is technopolitics? A conceptual scheme for understanding politics in the digital age”. In IDP. Revista de Internet, Derecho y Ciencia Política, 24. Barcelona: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Retrieved May 21, 2017 from
  • Peña-López, I., Congosto, M. & Aragón, P. (2014). “Spanish Indignados and the evolution of the 15M movement on Twitter: towards networked para-institutions”. In Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies, 15 (1-2), 189-216. New York: Routledge. Retrieved August 24, 2014 from
  • Vromen, A., Xenos, M. a. & Loader, B., 2014. Young people, social media and connective action: from organisational maintenance to everyday political talk. Journal of Youth Studies, 6261(July 2014), pp.1–21. Available here
  • Peña-López, I. (2017). Citizen participation and the rise of the open source city in Spain. Bengaluru: IT for Change. Retrieved May 20, 2017 from
  • Sánchez-Navarro, J. & Aranda, D., 2012. Messenger and social network sites as tools for sociability, leisure and informal learning for Spanish young people. European Journal of Communication, 28(1), pp.67–75. Available at:

Main barriers and inequalities of online political participation

Public policy proposals on youth and online political participation